E-BOOKS

E-books (e-readers), as we know, they are electronic books. That can and does exist without any printed equivalent. E-books are usually read on dedicated e-book readers. Personal computers and some mobile phones can also be used to read e-books. The first e-book may be prepared by Roberto Busa beginning in the late 1940s. And then the electronic books are considered by some to have started in the early 1960s.Right now their formats are various such as TXT, EPUB, DOC, HTML, CHM, and PDF and so on. And there are some products like Amazon Kindle, Nook, iPad, Sony Reader etc.

The advance of e-books:

First and foremost, they are convenient. You don’t need to carry a heavy book or plenty of books. Additionally, it only uses a little bit places to put. You can check the mean of the words that you don’t understand. They also provide thousands of language for readers to choose.

Second, they save time. It saves us from going to a shop, purchasing a book or wasting time on home delivery. Overall, this is a time consuming process. And since time is a very important factor in today`s world, E-books provide instant solution to our questions. Moreover, we can easily search the topic we want to know about on the internet and then easily get numerous E-books on similar topics. They are now also available in mobile phones, as these devices have made the use e-books broader. A user can get any information via E-books from his office directly on his/her mobile phone. This has brought a revolution in the world of internet and communication.

The offset printing field trip

L   LIN

GRA 1111

The offset printing press field trip

 

 

 

We got a nice field trip on May 8th, 2012. Before this trip, I still got confuse how the offset printing press works, even though I read up the books. On that day the professor mechanically and physically demonstrated the process of an obsolete offset printing press to us. The concept of offset printing is the repulsion of oil and water. He showed us two kinds of plates, which are one side and two sides printing. And we can put the ink when we need, of course, if we need other colors; we need to wash the cylinder first since it is a one color printing.

 

 This is a sample from that offset printing press.

 

The professor also explained the process of 4- color press through one color press. It uses Yellow, Magenta, Blue and black ink step by step via one color press.

 

These are coated samples and uncoated samples. Obviously, the coated papers are smoother , glossier, and more expensive as well.

Those are samples with varnish and without varnish. As we see the papers with varnish are brighter than the papers without varnish.

Midterm

L  LIN

GRA 1111

Midterm

  1. 1.    Describe 5 great moments in print history I
  1. 105 invention of paper  in China
  2. 1041 invention of movable type in China
  3. 1455 Gutenberg’s Bible was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany. It becomes a manufacturing process.
  4. 1798 invention of lithography in Germany
  5. 1886 Linotype is the first successful automated typesetting machine in New York City
  1. 2.    What is Font, Definition, Family, Serif, Sans Serif, Decorative and display fonts
  1. Font: One specific weight, width, and style of a typeface
  2. Family: the combinations of typefaces
  3. Serif: like cross-line at the end of a stroke
  4. Sans Serif: the typefaces without serifs
  5. Decorative and display fonts: contain variety of fonts and use a lot of serif and sans serif. They are very effective at attracting attention.
  1. 3.    Describe great moments in print history  II
  1. 1930 first four-color offset  lithographic press
  2. 1954 first commercial “cold type” phototypesetting machine
  3. 1993 first digital offset presses
  4. 1994 industry adopts computer- to – plate(CTP) technology
  5.  1998 first “electronic book” reading device
  1. 4.    Explain color: RGB, CMYK, Complimentary colors. Explain the difference between 4-color printing and Spot color printing.
  1. RGB:  red, green, blue. Used in screen
  2. CMYK: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). Used in printing
  3. Complimentary Colors: colors opposite each other.

For example, red – green, blue – orange, yellow – purple.

  1. The difference between 4-color printing and Spot color printing:

4-Color printing involves CMYK colors, which are applied to an order, and comes out the full color image.

Spot Color printing results no full color imagery with a small color rang that are layered onto the paper one by one.

  1. 5.    What is E- portfolio?

A way to organize, archive and display pieces of work by using technology, which may include the Internet, video, audio and so on.

  1. 6.    Paper characteristics, grain direction, making of paper

–Characteristics

  1. Brightness ( the measurement of how much white light a paper reflects, expressed as a percentage)
  2. Opacity (the way to decide how visible images from the opposite side of the sheet)
  3. Calendaring (one of steps in the papermaking process that run through a series of smooth-surfaces to the paper)
  4.  Basis weight (the weight in pounds of a ream, that is , 500 sheets, in the basic size for that grade)
  5.  Caliper (the measurement of a paper’s thickness, expressed as a point size in thousands of an inch)
  6.  Bulk (compare a paper’s thickness with its basis weight)

Grain direction

It has two grain directions, which are “grain short” and “grain long” , depends on the fibers are parallel to the short or long dimension.

–Making of paper

First, paper is made from fibers of cellulose. Whatever materials contain cellulose can be used, but the most common source of cellulose is trees.

Second, if the cellulose from trees, we need to bleached them and rinsed out to make printing and writing papers.

Third, we take the cellulose fibers to wash, cook and bleach, it called pulping stage. After that, they remain 99% water.

And then we put them into the papermaking machine. Water drains through the wire, that is, the stock is sprayed onto a long, wide, moving screen, and the pulp fibers begin to bond together in a very thin mat on the top side of the wire. That is the fourth step.

Fifth, it called dry end, which is the wet paper is heated and dried entirely into finished paper.

Finally, there are calendaring and coating stages to make paper smooth and uniform in thickness.

  1. 7.    Describe 4 binding processes
    1. Saddle- and side-wire stitching

Saddle-stitching (pages are bound down their common center with staples), for booklet, some magazines, etc.

Wire-wire stitching (paper are inserted along one edge by staples), for manuals, directories, etc.

  1. Case binding (the paper are sewed together into a book clock and then the book blocks are fitted and glued into a rigid cover )
  2. In adhesive or perfect binding (the cover is coated on its inner edge with a hot-melt glue )
  3.  Mechanical binding (uses devices to hold documents and publications together. For example, spiral wire, Wire-O, plastic combs rings, etc.)
  1. 8.    Explain prepress: Halftones for printing, The halftone dot

Halftones for printing – are produced by screening image digitally to create the various dots, which are in different size, shapes, and spacing.

The halftone dot — there are three different types dots.

  1. Round dots are the most common, suitable for light images, especially for skin tones.
  2. Elliptical dots are appropriate for images with many objects.
  3. Square dots are the best for detailed images, not recommended for skin tones.
  1. 9.    Explain prepress: Image assembly, Layout, Scanning, File formats, Program used to create print layouts.

Image assembly—it is put the pages together in the order and right position for printing manually or electronically.

Layout—is the arrangement of contents, graphics, and images on a page.

Scanning—the process of translating photographs into a digital form that can be organized by a computer.

File formats—particular ways to encode information for storage in a computer file.

Program used to create print layouts:

  • Adobe CS5 In Design
  • Adobe CS5 Photoshop
  • Adobe CS5 Illustrator
  • QuarkXPress 8
  • Adobe Acrobat 9 Professional

 

  1. 10.                      List 10 products of graphic communication industry P64
    1. Books
    2. Periodicals
    3. Catalogs
    4. Direct mail
    5.  Directories
    6. Financial and legal
    7. Packaging
    8. Technical documents
    9. Promotion (advertising)
    10. Corporate products
    11. Miscellaneous products

Bonus: explain the importance of Gutenberg Bible

Gutenberg made possible the mass production of printing for the first time. Gutenberg Bible was the first 42 lined letter words and it was a major turning point in our history’s time, he also came up with the upper case and the lower case letters. He called them that because he placed the larger letters on the upper case and the smaller letters on the lower case.



Letterpress Field Trip

L LIN

     Section: GRA 1111

     Assignment: Review of trip 

On Feb. 14th 2012, the professor took us to visit the printing room on campus, providing the Letterpress demonstrations and spreading some knowledge of the terminology of professional typography. We met a professor, Sleve Caputo who works there, and he showed us the process of Full-size Platen Job Press. It is relief printing of text and image using a press with a “type-high bed” printing press and movable type, in which a reversed, raised surface is inked and then pressed into a sheet of paper to obtain a positive right-reading image. This letterpress is showed below:

In about 1440, Johannes Gutenberg is credited with the invention of modern movable type printing from individually cast, reusable letters set together in a form (frame). Sleve showed us a frame that had already put a few galleys from galley cabinets. People can put whatever galleys you need and set type them according to your image. And then he took a little bit ink(we chose blue) by ink knife spread on platen. When he turned on the letterpress, the platen started rotating and the rollers spread the ink on the whole platen.  The platen is typically a flat metal (or earlier, wooden) plate pressed against a medium to cause an impression in letterpress printing. So we inserted the frame we consisted and let the rollers that had already stained the color from platen to stain the color on that frame. When we put the paper, the frame would pressed on the paper once you turned the control handle. An image was successfully emerged. Shows below:

Sleve also mentioned that the paper has two sides, one is smooth, another is rough. And he tried the two side of paper to show us. Obviously, the image on smooth side is lighter than rough side. But it depends on the people’s demand. Later on, each student printed out the image on both sides by themselves. We can see how well the ink transferred from the rollers to the frame and from the frame to the paper. I was so excited to print the image because this is my first time to use this kind of huge printer. Actually, I think everybody got exciting to try it.

When students finished printing, Sleve introduced the rest of printers in that room as well , especially the automatic platen die cutting machine. He demonstrated how that machine cut a pile of paper neatly.  And he said the knife on that machine can use about ten years usually.  We all got amazing about that tartly cutting machine. That is the cutting machine shows below:

Overall, I learned some terminology of professional typography and how does the letterpress work. It makes me know and remember deeper about the printing history. By the way, it is kind of encouraging me to design something and print it out by press. In short, I was so enjoy this trip~!

super bowl commercial

Product: Bud Light Platinum

Target Audiences: the people who want to enjoy their work

Headline: MAKEITPLATINUM

Tagline: Enjoy Responsibly

Visual elements: people,place of work, place of party,blue,platinum ,black and gold

Goals of commercial:  help people enjoy work  by drinking it